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About Azerbaijan

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    Manat (AZM)

About Azerbaijan

Partially landlocked and partly coastal; Azerbaijan features a diverse range climatic variances in both temperature and precipitation. With countries such as Iran, Russia, Georgia and Armenia surrounding the region of Azerbaijan, itâs no wonder the country itself experiences such a wide diversity of typical weather forecasts.

The expected climatic circumstances of Azerbaijan are indeed distinctive, with nine of the earthâs eleven climatic zones found in the one country! The majority of the Azerbaijan region features a subtropical climate, however, it due to great variation in altitude and weather conditions, the climate diverges right throughout the country.

Azerbaijan is located on the northern boundary of the subtropical zone, southern Caucasus and northwestern area of the Iran lowland. The countryâs climatic multiplicity is factored by the obscure environmental positioning and landscape, the propinquity with the Caspian Sea, the difference of origins in air masses and the consequences of the sunâs solar radiation.

Summertime in Azerbaijan is typically very dry and very mild, particularly in eastern and central areas of the district. The coastal region of the Caspian Sea features very minimal rain; therefore the majority of the area is very desert like. Lankaran Lowland; located at the most southern point of the country is the wettest region of Azerbaijan that experiences quite a vast amount of rainfall and the typical climate is generally always humid. Nevertheless, the typical weather in other areas is subject to the current altitude. Given this, the areas that are located farthest southwest of Azerbaijan are situated a fair amount below sea level, experiences very hot and very long summers. Further inland, however, throughout the mountainous regions and just at the foot of the highlands temperatures are rather cold to mild. Altitudes greater than 3050m feature very low climates and the mountains roads and tracks are closed for various months throughout the year due to snowy and icy conditions.


Located in a region with primary surroundings of Highland; Azerbaijan is home to mountains such as Major Caucasus, Talysh, Minor Caucasus and the North Iranian Mountains. The foot lowland located in the middle of the Major and Minor Caucasus extends to as far as the Caspian Sea in the east of Azerbaijan. Located in the northern end of the country The Major Caucasus stretches from the south-east to the north-west, sheltering the entire country from any windy gusts of cold air masses, directed from the north. This then develops into the construction of the various subtropical climates throughout the country; mostly on foothills and lowlands of Azerbaijan. Other numerous highland chains, neighbouring the country, also have a great influence on the air circulation and its effects on everyday climates. The density of the countryâs current landscape results in a non-uniform arrangement of climatic regions and also generates vertical climate zones.

Solar Radiation

The lowland and mountainous areas of Azerbaijan are subject to the density and power of solar radiation levels. With average sunlight in the lowland area of Kur-Araz ranging between 2200 to 2400 hours per year, the Apsheron peninsula and other plateaus and foothills nearby the plains of Araz in the Nakhchivan occasionally exceed 2600 to 2800 of sunshine hours per year. Because of the influence of low lying clouds in the highland regions, only 1900 to 2200 hours of sunlight is visible per year.  

At the altitude of 3000 meters, the sun shines brightly throughout 2200 to 2500 hours per year, equalling a total amount of 128 to 132 kcal (kilocalorie) per 1sq cm every year. As the elevation of the mountains decreases so does the amount of sunshine falling down to 120 to 124 kcal-cm², while being at a height of 500 to 600 metres above sea level. This will then progressively ascend as the level reaches 140 to 150 kcal-cm² at an altitude of over 3000 metres over the Major and Minor Caucasus.

The quantity of solarium emission released throughout the Araz plateau in Nakhchivan equals 148 to 150 kcal-cm², and inclines throughout the mountainous areas as it reaches 152 to 160 kcal-cm²; generally in Lenkoran 50 to 60 kcal-cm² and in the mountains 15 to 25 kcal-cm².

Air Masses

The typical climate of Azerbaijan if formed by the authority of cold air masses of artic; Scandinavian and Kara anti-cyclones, maritime; Azores maximum, and temperate; Siberian anti-cyclones. Nevertheless, hot air masses of the tropical regions (southern cyclones and subtropical anti-cyclones) form Central Asian anti-cyclones and this generates the current restricted weather circumstances. In regards to landscape, assortment in Azerbaijan typical air masses has various ways to enter the environment and surrounding land. Therefore, although not stopping the hot masses from entering Azerbaijan, the cold continental and maritime air masses from the south still alter various features of the hot air masses and influence the vivacious of atmospheric conditions.

Climate types

  1. A semi-desert and very dry climate that covers the majority of the innermost low lying land regions. 15 to 50 per cent of the annual conversation of rainfall is evaporated. Winter, however, is mostly hot, but summer is very hot with occasional days seeing temperatures higher than 40ºC
  2. A semi-desert and dried out climate that typically experiences cold winters and extensive, hot, dry summers.
  3. A mild to a hot climate. The lower mountainous areas feature very dry winters but are also quite cold. Annual rainfall levels create anywhere from 50 to 100 per cent of possible evaporation. Winters throughout the country are generally placid and mild, with low average rainfall and summers are mild to hot.
  4.  A mild to hot climate with very dry summers and mild winters. Autumn is the season that generally experiences the highest amount of precipitation, but it rains less from May until the end of August.
  5. A cold climate with dry mild winters and cool summers.
  6. A cold climate with dry, cool summers and cold winters. The majority of precipitation obtained throughout the winter is in the form of snow. While the remainder of the year is relatively dry.
  7. A mild to hot climate with equivalent sharing of rainfall covers all areas of the country. Winter is mild and summers are mild to hot.
  8. A cold climate is a fair distribution of precipitation throughout all season. Winter is generally cold and summers are mild.
  9. Areas are higher than 2700m of elevation. Both winter and summers are cold and in most places, snow is present all year round.