Iraq: Weather Overview
Surrounded by countries such as
Iraq’s main geographical features are made up of desert;
situated in the west and southwest regions, alluvial plain extending from
northern Baghdad to the Persian Gulf, the highlands in the north and northeast
and the upper Mesopotamia, also known as the rolling upland between upper
Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Each of these characteristics has their own
uniqueness that helps build the overall climate of
Approximately 90 percent of the areas annual precipitation
is obtained from November through until April with most of it occurring
throughout the winter months from December until March. The remainder of the
year is very hot and very dry, particularly throughout June to August when the
average temperature reaches 32°C. The Persian Gulf has very minimal influence
on the overall climate of
With the arrangement of the lack of precipitation and
extreme heat variances
With exception to the north and north eastern regions, the average annual rainfall varies from 100mm to 170mm every year. Records show that average annual precipitation ranges from 320mm to 570mm in the northern highland areas. Obviously rain falls more frequently in the mountainous region and in some places, on occasions can reach more than 1000mm per year, however the surrounding environment prevents widespread agriculture. Agriculture on non-irrigated lands is very restricted, particularly on the mountain valleys, steeps and foothills which obtain only 300mm or rainfall per year.
Average low climates in the winter months vary from near freezing point; normally just before sunrise throughout the northern and north-eastern foothills and the west of the desert to around 2°C or 3°C and 4°C to 5°C in the alluvial plateau area in the south of Iraq. They do however rise to average highs of approximately 16°C in the west and northeast of the desert and to 17°C in the south. In the summertime average low climates range from 22°C to 29°C and will commonly rise to highs of 38°C and 44°C. Temperatures throughout the country will typically fall below freezing point and have in previous year’s fallen to as low as -14.5°C at Ar Rutbah in the western desert area. However, temperatures are more likely to rise above 46°C in the summer months and high temperatures in the past have reached over 48°C.
The summertime is commonly marked by two types of wind phenomena’s; the southern and south easterly sharqi. These dry, dusty winds take place from April to early June and again from late September through until November can occasionally blow up to eighty kilometres per hour. These phases can last for a whole day at the commencement and end of the seasons, however can last for up to several days at all other times. Harsh dust storms are usually accompanied by these winds that have been known to reach several thousand meters in height that force to close down airports for short periods of time. From the middle of June through until mid September a prevailing wind named “the shamal” is present throughout the country from the north and northwest. The extremely dry air that is brought by the shamal consents extensive heating of the lands surface, the breeze however has a soothing cooling effect.
Throughout the western and southern desert regions the typical weather is known by its hot summer days and cool to mild winters. This area also obtains harsh but brisk rainstorms throughout the winter months that bring around 100mm of water in to the region. The majority of nights are clear in the summer and around a third of the winter nights are cloudy.
The mountains in the north and northeast regions see climates that known for their typical warm summer days and cold winter months. Most of the regions rainfall is obtained in winter and spring, with very sparse precipitation in the summer. In regions above 1500m, heavy snow falls during the winter, and thunder and lightening storms are common throughout the summer. Average rainfall for the whole area ranges from 400mm to 1000mm per year.
Throughout the foothill regions there is practically no precipitation in the summer months and short brief showers in the winter. The winter rainfall will commonly average around 380mm. Night time is normally clear in the summer months and the winter will normally see thick clouds.